Benny Bass boxer

Benny Bass boxer
bouts
195
won
158
lost
29
draw
6
Status
inactive
Division
lightweight
Debut
1919-12-02
Height
5′ 1½″/156cm
Reach
64″/163cm
Age
71
Born
1903-12-04
Death
1975-06-25
Nationality
USA

Bass was born in Kiev, Russia on December 4, 1904, the second son to Jewish parents Jacob and Pauline and was brought to America three years later. His father first came to Philadelphia to earn enough money to send for his five sons and wife in Kiev. They sailed to America but were first rescued from a shipwreck on their way, spending five weeks in Queenstown, Ireland. By ten, he was making a living selling newspapers at a busy street corner in Philadelphia. In his early teens, Benny held down a job at Curtis Publishing Company, who published The Saturday Evening Post. From age twelve to sixteen, Bass won 95 of 100 bouts as an amateur. Impressively, he qualified for the Olympic Trials in the Flyweight Class in 1920, where he lost a decision to the future Gold Medal winner Frankie Genaro. Turning pro the following year, he was managed by Phil Glassman. By 1926, he was rated the number one featherweight contender.In an important early career bout, Bass defeated Johnny Dixon, a leading featherweight contender, in a ten-round newspaper decision on August 30, 1923.

Date Opponent Last Opponents' Results Place Result
1940-05-07 Tommy Speigal LWWLLL Convention Hall, Philadelphia LOST
Unanimous decision
1940-04-08 Jimmy Tygh WWWWDW Convention Hall, Philadelphia LOST
Majority decision
1940-03-04 Jimmy Tygh WLWWWW Convention Hall, Philadelphia DRAW
Points
1940-02-02 Norman Rahn LDLLLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1940-01-22 Tony Sarullo WWWWLW Convention Hall, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1939-10-13 Norman Rahn LLLLDL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1939-08-10 Young Chappie LLLLLL Cambria Stadium, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1937-07-27 Henry Armstrong WWWWWW Baker Bowl, Philadelphia LOST
KO
1937-06-15 Tommy Cross DWWLDW Baker Bowl, Philadelphia WIN
Split-decision
1937-04-16 Gene Gallotto WWLWLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1937-04-08 Johnny Cabello LLWLLW Olympia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1937-03-18 Charley Gomer WWWLLW Olympia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1937-03-12 Andy Bundy LLWWLW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1937-02-05 Gene Gallotto WLWWLW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1937-01-22 Freddie Cochrane LLLWLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1937-01-14 Joey Allen WLLWWW Olympia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1936-12-18 Joey Zodda LLLWWW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1936-12-04 Dave Finn WWWLLW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1935-12-25 Johnny Craven DLLDWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Technical knockout
1935-12-06 Charley Burns WWWWLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1935-11-11 Jack Portney WDWWWW Carlin's Park, Baltimore LOST
Points
1935-10-11 George Gibbs LDLLWD Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1935-08-27 Mike Marshall LLLLLW Open Air Arena, Leiperville WIN
Points
1935-08-21 Johnny Craven LLLDDL Carnival Park, West Manayunk WIN
Points
1935-07-29 Jimmy Leto WWWWWW South Park Arena, Hartford LOST
Points
1935-07-26 Johnny Craven LLLLDD Carnival Park, West Manayunk WIN
Points
1935-07-23 Frankie Wallace LWLLLL Maple Grove Arena, Lancaster WIN
Points
1935-05-27 Mose Butch WWWWWL Hickey Park, Millvale WIN
Split-decision
1935-04-29 Tony Falco LWLLWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Majority decision
1935-04-12 Mike Marshall DLLLLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1935-03-22 Mike Marshall LDLLLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1935-02-18 Eddie Cool WWWWLW Arena, Philadelphia LOST
Majority decision
1934-12-25 Jimmy Brady LLLLLL Laurel Garden, Newark WIN
Points
1934-12-20 Baby Kid Chocolate LWWWWW Convention Hall, Atlantic City WIN
Technical knockout
1934-12-03 Frankie Wallace DLLWLL Convention Hall, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1934-09-24 Petey Sarron LWWLWW Arena, Philadelphia LOST
Majority decision
1934-08-31 Eddie Shea DWLLLL Bader Field, Atlantic City WIN
KO
1934-08-27 Petey Sarron LLWWLW Griffith Stadium, Washington LOST
1934-07-31 Johnny Jadick DWLLWL Baker Bowl, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1934-04-30 Cleto Locatelli WLWLDW Convention Hall, Philadelphia LOST
Split-decision
1934-04-09 Jimmy Leto WLLWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Corner retirement
1934-03-12 Cleto Locatelli WLWLWL Arena, Philadelphia DRAW
Points
1933-12-27 Eddie Cool WLWWWW Convention Hall, Philadelphia WIN
Split-decision
1933-10-02 Stumpy Jacobs LWDLWL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
Points
1933-09-04 Davey Abad WWWLWW Buffalo Stadium, Houston LOST
1933-08-30 Stumpy Jacobs WLWDLW Arena, Virginia Beach WIN
Points
1933-08-21 Jack Portney WWWLWW Convention Hall, Atlantic City WIN
KO
1933-08-07 Buster Brown WWWLLW Convention Hall, Atlantic City WIN
Points
1933-05-22 Buster Brown WLLWWW Carlin's Park, Baltimore WIN
Points
1933-04-17 Jackie Willis LWWDWL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
Points
1933-04-04 Johnny Farr LLLLLL Olympia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1933-03-08 Joe Ghnouly LWWWWW Arena, Saint Louis WIN
Majority decision
1933-02-22 Phil Zwick WDLWLL Olympia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1933-01-27 Sid Lampe LLDDLD Madison Square Garden, New York WIN
KO
1932-12-12 Dominick Petrone LWLLLW St. Nicholas Arena, New York WIN
Technical knockout
1932-12-05 Eddie Reilly WWLWWL St. Nicholas Arena, New York WIN
KO
1932-09-12 Tony Falco WWWWDW Convention Hall, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1932-08-26 Young Patsy Wallace WWWLW Atlantic City Auditorium, Atlantic City WIN
Points
1932-07-25 Ernie Ratner WLLWDL Thompson Stadium, Stapleton, Staten Island WIN
Points
1932-06-07 Harry Carlton LLWWW Oakland Outdoor Arena, Jersey City DRAW
Points
1932-05-25 Harry Dublinsky WWWDWL Arena Stadium, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1932-04-15 Young Zazzarino WLDLWD Hollywood Arena, Jersey City WIN
KO
1932-04-14 Mickey Doyle WLLWLL Auditorium, Wilmington WIN
KO
1932-03-14 Frank Bojarski WWLLWW Motor Square Garden, Pittsburgh LOST
1932-03-09 Wesley Ramey DWWDWW Coliseum, Saint Louis LOST
Unanimous decision
1931-12-25 Prince Saunders LWLWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1931-12-18 Sid Lampe DDLWWD Auditorium, Wilmington WIN
KO
1931-11-30 Jackie Pilkington LWWWLW Arena, Philadelphia LOST
1931-07-15 Kid Chocolate LLWWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia LOST
Technical knockout
1931-06-26 Georgie Day LLLLLL Convention Hall, Atlantic City WIN
Technical knockout
1931-05-04 Eddie Mack DLLWDW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1931-04-13 Young Joe Firpo WLWWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1931-03-30 Young Joe Firpo WWLWWW Arena, Philadelphia LOST
Points
1931-02-16 Bud Taylor WDLLWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Technical knockout
1931-01-05 Lew Massey LWDWLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1930-12-08 Johnny Jadick WWDWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1930-12-02 Al Bryant LWWLLW Manhattan Auditorium, Allentown WIN
Unanimous decision
1930-11-24 Lew Massey WWLWDW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1930-10-27 Bud Mangino LLL Arena, Trenton WIN
KO
1930-10-06 Mike Dundee WWLDDL Coliseum, Davenport LOST
1930-09-15 Cowboy Eddie Anderson WWWWLL Coliseum, Des Moines WIN
1930-09-10 Tommy Cello LLWWW Peoria LOST
1930-09-03 Cowboy Eddie Anderson LWWWWL Coliseum, Des Moines WIN
1930-07-21 Tony Canzoneri WWWWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia LOST
Unanimous decision
1930-06-23 Joey Goodman WWWDWW Meyers Bowl, North Braddock WIN
Split-decision
1930-06-10 Cowboy Eddie Anderson WDDWWW Borchert Field, Milwaukee WIN
KO
1930-03-28 Eddie Shea WWWWWW Arena, Saint Louis LOST
1930-02-22 Cowboy Eddie Anderson WDWLWW Auditorium, Milwaukee DRAW
Points
1930-02-07 Sammy Fuller WWLWWW Boston Garden, Boston LOST
1930-02-03 Davey Abad WLWLWL Coliseum, Saint Louis WIN
Technical knockout
1929-12-20 Tod Morgan WDWLDL Madison Square Garden, New York WIN
KO
1929-12-02 Jim El Zaird LLLLLL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1929-11-11 Eddie Reed LLWWWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1929-11-05 Jimmy Mendo WLWWLL Arena, Saint Louis WIN
KO
1929-10-11 Armando Santiago DWWLWL Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1929-09-27 Johnny Datto WWWWLW Chicago Stadium, Chicago LOST
1929-09-18 Armando Santiago WDWWLW Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
1929-08-23 Charley Goodman LLLLLL Municipal Stadium, Long Branch WIN
Technical knockout
1929-07-31 Benny 'Kid' Carter LLWWWL Ebbets Field, Brooklyn WIN
Points
1929-07-26 Calvin Reed WWLDLW Bacharach Ball Park, Atlantic City WIN
Points
1929-07-18 Augie Pisano DLLLLL Dreamland Park, Newark WIN
Points
1929-05-23 Steve Smith LWDWLL Meyers Bowl, North Braddock WIN
Points
1929-05-06 Petey Mack DWLWWD St. Nicholas Arena, New York WIN
Points
1929-04-29 Johnny Farr WLWLLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1929-03-25 Harry Forbes LWWWLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1929-03-19 Davey Abad WWLDLL Coliseum, Saint Louis LOST
1929-02-28 Davey Abad DWWLDL Coliseum, Saint Louis WIN
1929-02-18 Steve Smith LWWLWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1929-02-11 Harry Forbes WLLWWW White City Arena, Chicago WIN
Points
1929-02-06 Henry Lenard WLDLWW Coliseum, Saint Louis LOST
1929-01-28 Red Chapman LWWLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1929-01-18 Joe Rivers LWWWWW Coliseum, Saint Louis WIN
KO
1929-01-14 Davey Abad WDWWLD Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1928-12-10 Gaston Charles DDLLLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1928-11-15 Dominick Petrone LWWLWL South Main Street Armory, Wilkes-Barre WIN
Technical knockout
1928-10-29 Phil McGraw DDLWLL Arena, Philadelphia LOST
1928-09-10 Harry Blitman WWWWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1928-08-27 Tony Russo LLDLLL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
Technical knockout
1928-08-13 Jimmy Burns LWLWWW Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
KO
1928-06-18 Pete Nebo DWWWWL Shibe Park, Philadelphia LOST
Points
1928-06-11 Tommy Liberto LWDLDL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
1928-02-10 Tony Canzoneri WWWWWD Madison Square Garden, New York LOST
Split-decision
1928-01-30 Wilbur Cohen LLLLDL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
1928-01-02 Pete Nebo WWWWWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Split-decision
1927-12-12 Johnny Sheppard LLWLWW Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence WIN
Points
1927-12-09 Johnny Farr WLLLDL Olympia Stadium, Detroit WIN
Points
1927-10-17 Mike Ballerino DDLLLL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1927-09-12 Red Chapman WWLLWW Sesquicentennial Stadium, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1927-08-16 Joey Williams DLWLLL Carnival Park, West Manayunk WIN
KO
1927-08-10 Johnny Farr WLWWWL Olympic Arena, Brooklyn WIN
Unanimous decision
1927-08-03 Tommy Crowley LWWLLL Harrogate Park, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1927-07-14 Mickey Doyle LWWWDW Artillery Park, Wilkes-Barre WIN
KO
1927-06-27 Joe Glick LWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1927-06-16 Dominick Petrone WWDWWW Queensboro Stadium, Long Island City, Queens WIN
Points
1927-05-02 Chick Suggs WWWDLL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1927-04-11 Joe Glick LDLWLW Arena, Philadelphia
1927-03-21 Joe Glick WDLDLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1927-01-01 Red Chapman WLWDWW Madison Square Garden, New York WIN
1926-12-10 Johnny Sheppard LLWLWL Mechanics Building, Boston WIN
Points
1926-12-08 Benny Cross LWWLW 113th Regiment Armory, Newark WIN
1926-11-23 Babe Herman LWLWLL Public Hall, Cleveland LOST
Points
1926-10-18 Frankie Garcia LLWWWW Broadway Arena, Brooklyn WIN
Points
1926-09-20 Johnny Mosely LLWWLL Carnival Park, West Manayunk WIN
KO
1926-09-15 Jack Ruskin WLDWL Airport, Atlantic City WIN
KO
1926-09-01 Babe Herman WWLWLW Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1926-07-29 Johnny Farr WWWWWL Madison Square Garden, New York WIN
Points
1926-07-12 Dick Finnegan WWWWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia DRAW
Points
1926-07-02 Georges Amblard WLWWLW Bacharach Ball Park, Atlantic City WIN
1926-06-24 Billy Kennedy LLLWL Madison Square Garden, New York WIN
KO
1926-06-08 Andy Martin WDWLWW Providence LOST
Points
1926-04-19 Ralph Repman WLWDWW Lancaster WIN
KO
1926-03-10 Wilbur Cohen LLLWWW 108th Field Artillery Armory, Philadelphia WIN
Technical knockout
1926-03-01 Pete Sarmiento WWWWDW Public Hall, Cleveland LOST
1926-02-17 Cowboy Eddie Anderson WWDWWW 108th Field Artillery Armory, Philadelphia DRAW
Majority decision
1926-01-18 Al Corbett LLLWWL Public Hall, Cleveland WIN
KO
1926-01-11 Leo (Kid) Roy WWWWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1926-01-01 Joe Nelson LWWLWL City A.C., Camden WIN
Technical knockout
1925-12-07 Harry Scott DWWLLD Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
Technical knockout
1925-11-26 Joe Ryder DWLDLL Adelphia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1925-11-16 Jose Lombardo WLWWLW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1925-11-02 Lew Mayrs LWWWWD Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1925-10-12 Cowboy Eddie Anderson LDWWWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1925-09-24 Cowboy Eddie Anderson WLDWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1925-08-14 Battling Mack LLDWWW Public Service Ball Park, Camden WIN
Technical knockout
1925-08-11 Johnny Farr WLWWWD Taylor Bowl, Newburgh Heights WIN
1925-06-30 Steve Smith LDLDWW Taylor Bowl, Newburgh Heights WIN
1925-06-08 Johnny Sheppard LWWLWL Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1925-04-20 Johnny Sheppard WLWLWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1925-03-09 Joey Schwartz LLLDL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1925-02-02 Joey Schwartz LLLLD Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Technical knockout
1925-01-14 Willie Kid Harvey WLLLWL 108th Field Artillery Armory, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-12-25 Earl Baird LLLLWL 108th Field Artillery Armory, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-12-08 Tommy Noble LLWLLL 108th Field Artillery Armory, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1924-11-25 Andy Martin WWWWDW Infantry Hall, Providence LOST
Points
1924-11-24 Tommy Noble LLLWLL 108th Field Artillery Armory, Philadelphia WIN
Points
1924-10-20 Pete Sarmiento WWWLWD Auditorium, Milwaukee LOST
1924-10-03 Terry Martin LWLWLW Infantry Hall, Providence WIN
Points
1924-10-01 Frankie Mandot Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-09-08 Al Markie LLLWLD Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-09-05 Chick Suggs WDWWWW Newport LOST
1924-08-20 Spencer Gardner LWWWLL Freebody Park, Newport WIN
KO
1924-07-21 Spencer Gardner LLLWWW Shibe Park, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1924-06-13 Teddy Joyce LLLLLW Sager's Arena, Aurora WIN
1924-04-29 Johnny Brown D Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-04-25 Sammy Craden LWLDDD Auditorium, Milwaukee WIN
KO
1924-04-15 Young Wolgast L Mechanics Building, Boston WIN
KO
1924-04-07 Mickey Diamond WWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-04-04 Joey Clein WWDDWW Auditorium, Milwaukee WIN
Technical knockout
1924-03-14 Buck Fleming LLWLLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1924-02-25 Joe Nelson LLLLDW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
Unanimous decision
1924-02-11 Jack Lester WLWWLL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-01-28 K.O. Leonard LLWWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1924-01-18 Martin Judge WDLWLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1923-12-14 Joe Nelson WDLLLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Points
1923-11-29 Tommy Murray LLLWLW Arena, Philadelphia LOST
1923-10-22 Pete Sarmiento WWWWWD Arena, Philadelphia LOST
1923-08-30 Johnny Dixon LDDW Airport, Atlantic City WIN
1923-08-16 Eddie O'Keefe WWLLLD Airport, Atlantic City WIN
Technical knockout
1923-07-30 Chick Kansas LWWWLL Bacharach Ball Park, Atlantic City WIN
1923-06-18 Mike Moran LDLWLL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
1923-04-16 Al Gordon WWWWWW Arena, Philadelphia WIN
1923-03-01 Bobby Garcia WWWWWW Madison Square Garden, New York LOST
Points
1923-02-27 Kid Kansas WLLD Armory, Reading
1923-02-08 Battling Mack DWWLLL Adelphia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1922-12-25 Tommy Murray DLWLWL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
1922-12-12 Cuddy DeMarco WWLWWW 20th Century A.C., Philadelphia LOST
1922-11-30 Billy Mascott LWWLDL Arena, Philadelphia WIN
1922-11-09 Jack Perry LDWWWL Chestnut Street Arena, Philadelphia WIN
1922-10-30 Rosey Stoy WLWWWW Lancaster WIN
1922-10-13 Young Sharkey LWDLDL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1922-08-23 Joe McGovern LLLL Logan A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1922-08-21 Joe Nelson LLLWLL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
1922-08-18 Frankie Ferro WLLWW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1922-07-31 Marty Burns LLLWL Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
1922-07-18 Jimmy Mendo WWDLWW Ice Palace, Philadelphia LOST
1922-07-07 Chick Kansas LLDLLW Ice Palace, Philadelphia LOST
1922-06-13 Young Coster LLLDLW Ice Palace, Philadelphia WIN
KO
1922-05-05 Joe Bradley LLWLWD Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1922-04-20 Chick Kansas WWWWWL Ice Palace, Philadelphia WIN
1922-04-03 Jack Lester LLLLLW Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City WIN
1922-03-17 Bobby McLeod WWWWWW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1922-03-03 Mickey Wolgast LWDWLW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia DRAW
1922-02-10 Sailor Joe Kelly WLDLLL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1922-01-16 Tommy Murray WDWDLL Olympia A.C., Philadelphia LOST
1922-01-13 Terry Hanlon LLWDWL Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1922-01-12 Joe Bradley WLLLLW Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1921-12-12 Billy Devine WDWLWL Olympia A.C., Philadelphia LOST
1921-12-02 Tommy Gorman WLWWWD Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1921-11-23 Sailor Joe Kelly DLDWLD Bijou Theater, Philadelphia WIN
1921-11-18 Whitey Langdon DWLLLW Cambria A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1921-10-20 Leo Vincent WLDLDL Ice Palace, Philadelphia WIN
1921-10-10 Bobby Allen LWWLWW Olympia A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Technical knockout
1921-09-24 Leo Reynolds DWWWLL National A.C., Philadelphia WIN
Technical knockout
1921-05-03 Sailor Joe Kelly WWWLDL Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia DRAW
1921-04-26 Johnny Royce WWDWWW Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia LOST
1921-04-09 Harry Roth D National A.C., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1921-04-05 Willie Tasker Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia WIN
KO
1921-04-02 Young Joe Tuber LWLLLL Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia WIN
1921-03-22 Sailor Joe Kelly DWWWLD Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia WIN
1921-03-08 Young Joe Tuber WWLWLL Auditorium A.A., Philadelphia WIN
1921-03-02 Young Monroe L National A.C., Philadelphia DRAW
1921-01-29 Matty Dechter DLWWWW National A.C., Philadelphia WIN
1919-12-02 Jack Martin Gayety Theater, Philadelphia WIN
KO